THE TRAGEDY IN MEDVEDEV’S WOOD
About execution of political prisoners of the Oryol prison
On September 11, 1941 in Medvedev’s wood, kilometers in ten of. An eagle, the staff of People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs shot 157 political prisoners who were contained in local prison. Among them — Christiaan Rakowski, Maria Spiridonova, Valentyn Arnold, Pyotr Petrovsky, Olga Kameneva and others. It was stated in Izvestiya newspapers (on September 1990, 5 and 15) and “A working tribune” (1990, on September 23).
Satisfying requests of readers, the magazine publishes the documents allowing! it is fuller to recreate circumstances of this tragedy — the resolution of Gosudarkstvenny Committee of Defense, a note of the people’s commissar of internal affairs of the USSR L. P. Beria and excerpts from the resolution of the military prosecutor. They answer, in particular, and a question of why in the resolution state credit obligations and a note L. P. Beria surnames of 170 prisoners appear, and on the sentence pronounced on September 8, 1941 161 persons were condemned. The matter is that the list was formed in a hurry, without any check, and it included surnames of nine people which in the Oryol prison were not by then any more (one died, others were osvobozhdekna after revision of their affairs).
26 myulya 1990 plenum of the Supreme Court of the USSR for lack of evidence cancelled a sentence concerning 108 people, convicts 8 sentyabkrya 1941. Criminal cases concerning 53 people were stopped in predydukshchy years.
On the suburb of the Eagle, in that Medvedev’s wood where 49 years ago political prisoners were shot, in September, 1990 the memorable sign is established.
STATE COMMITTEE OF DEFENSE
Resolution No. state credit obligations-634ss
September 6, 1941.
To apply a capital punishment — execution to 170 prisoners raznovremenno condemned for terrorist, espionage and diversionary and other counterrevolutionary work.
To charge consideration of materials to Military Board of the Supreme Court of the USSR.
Committee of Defense I. Stalin
STATE COMMITTEE OF DEFENSE
to companion STALIN
Due to the military operations between the USSR and Germany, nekotokry — the most embittered part of the state criminals who are contained in jails of People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs carries on porakzhenchesky propaganda among prisoners and tries to prepare escapes for renewal of blasting work.
Submitting at the same time the list on 170 prisoners raznovremenno condemned for terrorist, espionage and diversionary and other counterrevolutionary work, the People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR considers necessary to primeknit to them a capital punishment — execution.
To charge consideration of materials to Military Board of the Supreme Court of the USSR. I ask your instructions.
National commissioner of internal affairs
USSR L. Beria
September 6, 1941.
about the termination of criminal case
On April 12, 1990 mountains. Moscow
The military prosecutor of the I department of Management of the Main military prokuratukra of rehabilitation the lieutenant colonel of justice Zybtsev, having considered the ugolovkny case No. 1 — 89 —established:
On September 5, 1941 according to instructions of the national commissioner of internal affairs of the USSR Beria L. P. and his deputy Kobulov B. 3. the 1st special department together with prison management of People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR for podkpisyam of chiefs of these divisions of Bashtakov L. F. and Nikolsky M. I. the list on 170 people of prisoners, convicts for counterrevolutionary crimes and serving sentence in Orlovksky prison of GUGB People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR is made earlier. In the list adjusting data on each prisoner are briefly stated and concerning 76 people it is specified that, being in prison, they allegedly carry out anti-Soviet propaganda.
On September 6, 1941 Beria addressed to the Chairman of the State Committee of Defense Stalin I. V. for ref. No. 2583/6 sent the letter and submitted the list on 170 prisoners with the petition to apply to them a capital punishment — execution, having specified that, in connection with military operations between the USSR and Germany, the persons listed in this list carry out defeatist propaganda among prisoners and try to prepare escapes for renewal of blasting work. Consideration of so-called “materials” was offered to be charged to voyenkny board of the Supreme Court of the USSR.
On the same day on September 6, 1941 Stalin signed the resolution No. state credit obligations-634ss on application of a capital punishment — execution to 170 prisoners raznovremenno condemned for terrorist, espionage and diversionary and other counterrevolutionary work. Consideration of materials as it is noted in the resolution, is entrusted to military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR.
On September 8, 1941 on the basis of the specified resolution, without initiation of legal proceedings and carrying out preliminary and sudebnokgo trials, military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR under Ulrich W. W. predsekdatelstvo (members of board Kandybin D. Ya. and Bukanov V. V.) the sentence concerning 161 prisoners is pronounced, according to a kotorokm are condemned according to Art. 58 — 10, the p. 2 UK of RSFSR to a capital punishment — execution — the following persons:
1. Adam Ivan Karlovic, 1886 year of birth;
2. Adzhoyan Amayak Gurgenovich, 1891 year of birth;
3. Aykhenvald Alexander Yulyevich, 1904 year of birth;
4. Aliyev Museib of Agali Oglou, 1890 year of birth;
5. Amelyan Arshak Ambartsumovich, 1890 year of birth;
6. Anny Voldemar Gustavovich, 1891 year of birth;
7. Apresov Georgy Abramovich, 1890 year of birth;
8. Arnold Valentyn Volfridovich (he is Vasilyev Valentin Vaksilyevich), 1894 year of birth;
9. Artyomov Anatoly Grigoryekvich, 1917 year of birth;
10. Bejmut Gustav Gustawowitsch, 1898 year of birth;
11. Belfort-Birkengauer Erich Wilgelmowitsch, 1903 rozhdekniya;
12. Bessonov Sergey Aleksandrokvich, 1892 year of birth;
13. Bondarev Vasily Aleksandkrovich, 1880 year of birth;
14. Revolt Willie Avgustovich, 1907 year of birth;
15. Bolkvadze-Melcharskaya Gaklina Bronislavovna, 1906 of a rokzhdeniye;
16. Walter Oskar Wikentyewitsch, 1875 year of birth;
17. Butkus Iosif Frantsevich, 1896 year of birth;
18. Jamil Ismail Oglou viewfinders, 1888 of year of birth;
19. Vilenkin Yuda Izrailevich, 1884 year of birth;
20. Volkov Nikolay Ivanovich, 1916 year of birth;
21. Vorovich Boris Grigoryevich, 1894 year of birth;
22. Vyn Do Kui, 1917’ rozhdekniya;
23. Geller Tadeush Leonovich, he is Vallerstein Richard, 1899 of year of birth;
24. Gernstengaym Elka Markovkna, 1896 year of birth;
25. Min Zong Public Educational Institution, 1909 of a rokzhdeniye;
26. Gusin Christiaan Jakimowitsch, 1915 year of birth;
27. De-Lazare Vincenzo Kandidovich, 1906 year of birth;
28. Dzasokhov Timofey Borisovich, 1868 year of birth;
29. Ezhov Sergey Ivanovich, 1904 year of birth;
30. Erofeyev Dmitry Fedorovich, 1879 year of birth;
31. Zharskaya-Matsinovsky Sokfya Petrovna, 1893 rozhdekniya;
32. Zibold Georgi Vladimirokvich, 1897 year of birth;
33. Izmailovich Aleksandra Adolfovna, 1878 year of birth;
34. Verda’s imam son Imama Guli, 1896 year of birth;
35. Kameneva Olga Davydovna, 1883 year of birth;
36. Karpenko Vladimir Vasilyekvich, 1880 year of birth;
37. Korkhonen Veli – Aimo – Vyaynya-mo Laurovich, 1918 year of birth;
38. Kasparova Varsenika Dzhavadovna, 1888 year of birth;
39. Kata-Oka-Kentaro (it is Tanaka Simaki Chi Kimura Dzhamburo), 1909 year of birth;
40. Keller Valentin Georgiyevich, 1862 year of birth;
41. Kim Den Mang, 1909 of a rokzhdeniye;
42. Kitnovskaya Nina Aleksandkrovna, 1901 year of birth;
43. Klepfer Ivan Ivanovich, 1875 year of birth;
44. Koval Ivan Kirillovich, 1878 year of birth;
45. Kozlowski Anatoly Sergeekvich, 1897 year of birth;
46. Kolman Artur Ivanovich, 1902 year of birth;
47. Kondrashechkin Vladimir Nikkolayevich, 1904 year of birth;
48. Kravets Nikolay Nikitovich, 1910 year of birth;
49. Kruger Andrey Andreevich, 1877 year of birth;
50. Krieger-Kreytsburg Augustus Alfredovich, 1892 year of birth;
51. Krilyk-Vasilkov Iosif Vasilyevich, 1898 year of birth;
52. Kushimbetov Antmukhan, 1911 year of birth;
53. Larin Alexander Mikhaylokvich, 1916 year of birth;
54. Lehman-Ionni Otto Ottovich, 1897 year of birth;
55. Leonov Sergey Aleksandrokvich, 1907 year of birth;
56. Lidtke Friedrich Gustawowitsch, 1896 year of birth;
57. Linkvist Hilda Andreevna, 1898 year of birth;
58. Li Qian Ying, 1896 of a rokzhdeniye;
59. Li June, 1905 rozhdekniya;
60. Logvinov Pyotr Tikhonovich (Efimovich), he is Shirokov Mikhakil Ivanovich, 1914 of year of birth;
61. Lysova-Mukhotdinova Evdokkiya Alekseevna, 1896 rozhdekniya;
62. Lü Kai Lu, 1903 rozhdekniya;
63. Maak Edyta Ernestovna, 1898 year of birth;
64. Maas Genes Gotfridovich, 1890 year of birth;
65. Majors Ilya Andreevich, 1890 year of birth;
66. Mamed Kuli Sattar Oglou, 1904 year of birth;
67. Marer Ludwig Iosifovich, 1896 year of birth;
68. Matikaynen Anton Semenokvich, 1882 year of birth;
69. Matskevich Pyotr Ignatyevich, 1916 year of birth;
70. Mikeladze Shalva Antonovich, 1884 year of birth;
71. Minkin Vasily Afanasyekvich, 1879 year of birth;
72. Mirdzhon Riye Zode, 1914 year of birth;
73. Mironchik Maxim Korney-vich, 1878 year of birth;
74. Mozhin Franz Ivanovich, 1891 year of birth;
75. Muzafarova Maryama Hasa-novna, 1906 year of birth;
76. Musayev Sultan Musa Oglou, 1915 year of birth;
77. Mizin Panteley Timofeyevich, 1878 year of birth;
78. Mylnikov Anatoly Sido-rovich, 1922 year of birth;
79. NAC Kaychiro, 1913 of a rokzhdeniye;
80. Neygebauer Yakov Yakovlevich, 1883 year of birth;
81. Not Stroyev-Tsypin Grigory Abramovich, 1877 year of birth;
82. Not ter Fritz Maksimilianokvich, 1884 year of birth;
83. Nikiforov Georgy Illarioknovich, 1882 year of birth;
84. Nikologorodsky Alexey Dmitriyevich, 1880 year of birth;
85. Niksresht Hasan Mamedovich, 1900 year of birth;
86. Oksus Oglou (Oksuz Oglou) Mu-stafa Omierovich, 1867 rozhdekniya;
87. Okudzhava Olga Stepanovna, 1888 year of birth;
88. Ortman-Gavatina of Ricky Mee-rovna, 1886 year of birth;
89. O-Seng-Chen, it is O-Hui-Giri (Au-Hui-Chen), 1896 of a rokzhdeniye;
90. Pallonbert Jan Yanovich, 1909 year of birth;
91. Parshkov Mikhail Ivanovich, 1887 year of birth;
92. Firstborns Pyotr Nikolaevich, 1892 year of birth;
93. Petrovsky Pyotr Grigoryekvich, 1898 year of birth;
94. Pletnev Dmitry Dmitriyekvich, 1872 year of birth;
95. Carpenters Sergey Pavlovich, 1882 year of birth;
96. Podgursky Nikolay Stanikslavovich, 1892 year of birth;
97. Pomogayev Ivan Ivanovich, 1893 year of birth;
98. Ponomarev Ilya Stepanovich, 1890 year of birth;
99. Nikolay Grigoryevich, 1905 of year of birth is sold;
100. Savitsky Konstantin Alekksandrovich, 1913 year of birth;
101. Sedova Valentina Sergeyevna, 1908 year of birth;
102. Semenov Evgeny Pavlovich, 1922 year of birth;
103. Serikova Ekaterina Ivanovkna, 1885 year of birth;
104. Xing-Dy-Shun, 1888 of a rokzhdeniye;
105. Skleva Mikhail Egorovich, 1892 year of birth;
106. Solovyov Victor Ilyich, 1904 year of birth;
107. Spiridonova Maria Alekksandrovna, 1884 year of birth;
108. Stroilov Mikhail Stepanokvich, 1899 year of birth;
109. Suppal Sime Karlovn, 1891 year of birth;
110. Sung-Zun-Ying, 1888 of a rokzhdeniye;
111. Sun-Xi-Yuan, 1907 of a rokzhdeniye;
112. Timofeev Evgeny Mikhaylokvich, 1885 year of birth;
113. Torchinovsky Andrey Dmiktriyevich, 1906 year of birth;
114. Trossin Julius, 1896 of a rokzhdeniye;
115. Tong-Shuang-Xiang, 1895 year of birth;
116. Tukhar Fedor Stepanovich, 1921 year of birth;
117. Tyan-Foo-Gui, 1921 of a rokzhdeniye;
118. Ugarova Olga Aleksandrovkna, 1896 year of birth;
119. Rakovsky Christiaan Georkgijewitsch, 1873 year of birth;
120. Rau Egor Egorovich, 1880 year of birth;
121. Rider Wilhelm Ivanovich, 1887 year of birth;
122. Reynbakh Arnold Andreevich, 1902 year of birth;
123. Rempel (he is Zuderman) Yakov Aronovich, 1883 a rozhdekniya;
124. Rozenbakh Fritz Karlovic, 1904 year of birth;
125. Radionovskaya Maria Dmiktriyevna, 1908 year of birth;
126. Ronkomyaki Kalle Abramokvich, 1907 year of birth;
127. Rudakov Nikolay Egorovich, 1900 year of birth;
128. Faustman Franz Simonowitsch, 1909 year of birth;
129. Ferner Willie, 1909 of a rokzhdeniye;
130. Finkgeyzer Julius Wasilyekwitsch, 1880 year of birth;
131. Fokin Zakhar Davydovich, 1907 year of birth;
132. Juan-Xing-Saint, 1913 of a rokzhdeniye;
133. Hauer Béla Yakovlevich, 1884 year of birth;
134. Husravbekov Ashurbek, 1879 (1876) year of birth;
135. Tsipperek Gustav (Yulits) Gu-stovich, 1902 year of birth;
136. Chaykin Vadim Afanasyevich, 1886 year of birth;
137. Chernov-Marushak-Viyevsky-Okhramenko Pavel Petrovich, 1908 year of birth;
138. Chernykh Victor Vasilyevich, 1899 year of birth;
139. Zhang-Dee-Shui, 1881 of a rokzhdeniye;
140. Siskins Onisim Lucic, 1891 year of birth;
141. Chin-Mun-Shen, 1878 of a rokzhdeniye;
142. Chumburidze Bagrat Spirido-novich, 1880 year of birth;
143. She-Kui-Xiang, 1908 of a rokzhdeniye;
144. Shimshelevich Samuil Zelikovich, 1883 year of birth;
145. Schlejder Hans Gansowitsch, 1904 year of birth;
146. Shlikhting-Pastukhova Raisa Petrovna, 1892 year of birth;
147. Schneider Gottlieb Kasparowitsch, 1893 year of birth;
148. Eykhenvald Fritz Moritsovich, 1901 year of birth;
149. Ekkerts (on zhe Gramatsky) Theodor Gotlibovich, 1899 of a rokzhdeniye;
150. Erdman Iosif Nikolaevich, 1900 year of birth;
151. Jeong Georgi Yakovlevich, 1884 year of birth;
152. Yulsky Victor Antonovich, he is Buksgorn Pankhas Kivovich, 1894 year of birth;
153. Yakkonen Toyvo Eynarovich, 1909 year of birth;
154. Yakovleva Varvara Nikolakevna, 1885 year of birth;
155. Yachmenev Andrey Stepanokvich, 1914 year of birth;
156. Tablash, he is Bikfolvi Iosif Iosifovich, 1880 of a rokzhdeniye;
157. Sung-oozes-Tang, 1905 of a rokzhdeniye;
158. Aliyev of Hankishi Bala of Keesha Oglou, he Paula Oglou, he is Beck Ali Oglou, 1881 year of birth;
159. Zdunkovsky Ivan Ivanokvich, 1911 year of birth;
160. Yefimov Fedor Nikolaevich, 1912 year of birth;
161. Tokhtamyshev Rustam, 1902 year of birth.
On September 11, 1941 concerning 157 convicts the sentence is carried out in Medvedev’s wood near. Eagle. Four from prigokvorenny to a capital punishment — Semenov E. P., Schneider G. K., Korkhonen V. L., Lysova-Mukhotdinova E. A., transferred by then to other jails, are shot in the place of their contents in perikod from September 13 to September 18, 1941.
The real criminal case is brought on January 18 by 1989 Mr. Prokuratukra of the USSR according to the private resolution of plenum of the Supreme Court of the USSR No. 40 — 88 of June 13, 1988 in the matter of Pyatakov Yu. L., Radek K. B., Arnold V. V. and others, condemned under sentence of a military kollekgiya of the Supreme Court of the USSR of January 30, 1937.
During consideration of the this case plenum of the Supreme Court of the USSR established that during departure of the sentence imposed under sentence of January 30, 1937, Arnold was in absentia condemned on September 8, 1941 by military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR according to Art. 58 — 10, the p. 2 UK of RSFSR to a capital punishment — execution. On the same sentence of September 8, 1941 without initiation of legal proceedings and without carrying out preliminary investigation and judicial proceedings 160 more people serving sentence in the Oryol prison are condemned.
Because the circumstances relating to legality of a vyneksenny sentence needed check, and if necessary and a rasksledovaniye, plenum of the Supreme Court of the USSR made the decision on transfer of the materials connected with adjudgement by military board of Verkhovny the vessels USSR of September 8, 1941, to the Attorney-General of the USSR for adoption of the decision on them based on the law.
The criminal case brought by Prosecutor’s office the USSR came on a podksledstvennost to the Main Military Procuracy. The above-named obkstoyatelstvo of pronouncement of the illegal decision by military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR of September 8, 1941 during preliminary investigation were confirmed by the following the dokazatelkstvo collected on business.
So, from testimonies of the former chief of the 1st special department of People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR Bashtakov L. F. it is visible that the list on 170 prisoners who are contained in the Oryol prison was formed in the 1st special department according to Kobulov’s instructions and with his direct participation. Kobulovy various marks were carried out in the list and the destiny of each zaklyuchenkny was defined. Materials about anti-Soviet activity of prisoners during their stay in prison as Bashtakov declared, did not come to the 1st special department and on the basis of what data on it it is specified in the list, he does not know (t. 1, l. 36 — 37; t. 2, l. 13 — 17).
These testimonies of Bashtakov will be coordinated with filed spiksky on 170 prisoners who are contained in the Oryol prison, otpechaktanny on the typographical form on September 5, 1941 in which by hand opposite to each surname various marks are executed. Concerning 76 people listed in the list data that, nakhokdyas in prison, they carry out anti-Soviet propaganda (t are entered. 7, l. 6 — 51).
The former chief of prison management of People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR the Nikolsky M. I. which signed the list on 170 prisoners confirmed that employees of the 1st special department on special a management ukazakniya were engaged in its drawing up. At the same time, as Nikolsky noted, by mistake in the list appeared a surname and those prisoners who at the time of its sostavlekniya did not contain in the Oryol prison any more since by then died or were released in connection with revision of their affairs. Any materials demonstrating anti-Soviet activity of prisoners as appears from Nikolsky’s explanations, prison upravlekny People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR had no (t. 1, l. 38 —-47, 48—53).
According to competent authorities, any materials confirming anti-Soviet activity of the prisoners who are contained in the Oryol prison is not available. In the course of investigation of data on it it is also not revealed (t. 2, l. 6, 41).
The former chief of the Oryol prison Yakovlev S. D., giving to a poyasnekniya about circumstances of execution of convicts, reported that approximately a month before capture by fascists of. An eagle from People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR there arrived the operaktivny group for performance of a special task — execution of group of the prisoners who are contained in prison. It agrees being available for the members of group to the list imprisoned by specially equipped cars within one day took out to the country and shot. None of the staff of prison were involved in this operation (t. 1, l. 54 — 58).
Being interrogated upon a sentence carrying out, the former chief of UNKVD on the Oryol region Firsanov K. F. pokakzat that the order of the chairman of military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR Ulrich about a carrying out of a sentence arrived when evacuation of zaklyukchenny which are contained in prison was made. The city, in connection with approach of the German troops, was exposed to frequent and strong bombings. It and the representative of a prokukratura was faced by a task not to allow substitution of convicts and to exclude any facts of mockery over them. Together with a public prosecutor’s rakbotnik, Firsanov explained, they studied personal records of prisoners and data which are available in them were compared to the data received during poll of convicts.
About how procedure of the announcement by the convict of a sentence proceeded, Firsanov reported the following:
“They were forwarded to the special room where specially podobrankny persons from among staff of prison put in a mouth an osuzhdennokma a gag made of cloth, tied it a rag that it could not push out it, and after that declared that he is sentenced to a capital punishment — execution. After that sentenced vyvokdila hands the prison yard also put into the truck with bulletproof boards …”
For reduction of the judgment in execution and burials shot as Firsanov showed further, the place kilometers in 10 of was defined. An eagle towards Mtsensk and Bolkhovo, in so-called Medvedev’s wood. He knows of it from the report of the subordinates — employees of UNKVD across the Oryol region of Chernousov K. A., Slyunyaeva N. I. and Terebkova G. I., being members of the commission on enforcement of the sentence. According to Firsanov’s statement, he on the place of execution was not.
Noting reserve and care with which the opekration was carried out, Firsanov specified:
“… With persons who had to are subjected to execution, continued to be in kamekra the person about 200 convicts. It was made to disguise the forthcoming action … Then these 200 people of their cellmates condemned next day after execution were evacuated …”
Follows from Firsanov’s explanations that trees which were in the wood on the place of burial were dug out previously with roots, and after burial of shot were put on the places. Up to October 3, 1941, i.e. taking of the Eagle by fascist troops as Firsanov noted, to them subordinates under the guise of mushroom pickers for check a sostoyakniya of the place of burial repeatedly went to the place of execution. According to their reports, an on-scene situation the zakhoronekniya was not broken (t. 1, l. 274 — 281).
During the investigation of the real criminal case the persons who were carrying out a sentence, and the place of burial shot, however were identified by the taken measures of search of participants of this action and to find the place of burial of convicts it was not presented possible.
Estimating in total collected in the matter of the proof, it is necessary to come to a conclusion what the persons involved in execution of a sentence of September 8, 1941 about execution of 161 convicts, could not know that this judgment of military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR yavlyaktsya illegal and therefore in their actions there is no structure of any crime.
As for criminal activity Beria and Kobulova, yavivshikhksya initiators of making decision on execution of 170 convicts who are contained in the Oryol prison, both of them Special Judicial presence of the Supreme Court of the USSR on December 23, 1953 for the committed crimes including for these acts, are sentenced to a capital punishment — execution (t. 2, l. 193 — 197).
Thus, by investigation it is established that the sentence of military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR of September 8, 1941 pronounced in structure: chairman Ulrich W. W., members of board of Kandybin D. Ya. and Bukanova V. V. concerning 161 prisoners, is illegal and unreasonable in this connection the question of its protest is raised.
As this judgment is passed on the basis of a postanokvleniye of the State Committee of Defense — time of public authority highest during this period, Ulrich W. W., Kandybina D. Ya. and Bukanov V. V. action structure of any crime not soderkzhat.
On the basis of stated, being guided by item 1 of Art. 208 and Art. 209 of the Criminal Procedure Code of RSFSR —
1. To prekraktit criminal case concerning Ulrich Vasily Vasilyevich, Kandybin Dmitry Yakovlevich, Bukanov Vasily Vasilyevich on the basis of item 2 of Art. 5 of the Criminal Procedure Code of RSFSR behind absence in act of corpus delicti.
2. To send the copy of the resolution to the Chief military prosecutor.
Military prosecutor of the I department of Management of the Main Military Procuracy of rehabilitation
lieutenant colonel of justice V. Zybtsev