Romanization of Gallia and Celtic heritage

For actually Gallia the Gallic war of Caesar which is victoriously finished in the middle of the last century was a boundary. After it there came the period of a Romanization of Gallia with all its consequences. Men were forced to lay down arms and to go in first of all for agriculture as the Roman armies needed a large number of the food. The Romanization went from the South of Gallia where Romans located already earlier, having created strong base for further advance there. The territory which is once occupied with Liguriysky tribes, the people severe and cruel which men had strength of wild animals and women did not concede to them in force and dexterity, there was a keltizirovana for a long time, and then is occupied by Romans. In Provence at the first emperor Augustus the new organization was entered, and it in every respect became very similar to Italy. In a new era Gallia supplies Romans mainly with agriculture products. In the south there were olive groves, plantations of fig trees and vineyards, in other Gallia cereals were cultivated and all types of cattle got divorced. Romans broke influence and power of the druids dangerous in the moral and intellectual relation, and entered the Roman right. The Roman officials and dealers quickly flooded all country. For the new mode was very expedient to rely mainly on the Celtic nobility, former, riders” which after loss of independence and falling of oppidum willingly and quickly adapted to the Roman high standard of living. The builders and technicians called from the South built for them spacious houses and rural estates and arranged them with the southern luxury; with establishment of the Roman power at construction of constructions solution was already everywhere applied. Rome, therefore, leaned on the land aristocracy which kept an extensive kliyentela in the rural possession. The Roman administration legally fixed the power of the dominating layer. The land registries connected with population census and land possession were made; the last were taxed. Land possession of that were individualized, fundus (estate) turned into the isolated unit which the woods, fields, vineyards, foundries and workshops entered; such real estate received also own name which was not changing and at change of its owner. For the local Celtic aristocracy special appeal was gained by the founded new cities giving an opportunity to live with conveniences and on a high standard of living, and is frequent also an opportunity to become the Roman citizen with all rights and advantages. In this regard Rome already at a boundary Ayr showed big activity. The number of the cities quickly grew already at Augustus and his successors both in Gallia, and in Switzerland, and later and in the basins of Rhine and Danube. Higher we already called many new cities in the south of modern France with their theaters, water supply systems and other constructions. BC moved Vibrakty Augustus’s inhabitants in 5 g to the new city of Avgustodun (Oten). At the same time, when there was Lyon, call also to Raurik (after Augustus Raurik) at the end of the way through the Alps on the pass Bol. Saint Bernard. At Caesar for protection against attacks of the well-known gelvetsky cavalry the Colony Yulia Ekvestris, then Noviodun and other settlements was based. The emperor Augustus between 27 and 28 BC four times visited Gallia. Kambodun near the present city of Kempten on the bank of Illera was based at the time of Tiberia (initial wooden constructions in the 1st century were replaced by stone), as well as camp of legionaries of Vindoniss in modern Switzerland, in connection with a construction of strengthenings in Germany in 17 g AD. The scheme of the cities was uniform and was adapted for military needs. In the center there was a forum, the square – the place of people’s assemblies and the market, then the temple, a basilica for official acts and administration of justice. At a forum ways crossed, around a forum trade quarters and workshops were located, on the periphery in spacious houses with colonnades there lived the aristocracy. Strong roads – the highway, in most cases at the expense of the cities and owners of land were constructed. Equally and kolonizatsionny activity of Rome in the Rhine areas had importance which can be equated to value of construction in the Middle Ages. There were magnificent constructions and in rural areas. Except houses of grandees of rather city character (Urban’s country house), country houses estates (a rustic country house) with spacious residential and economic buildings were under construction. Safety of the province and all empire was provided with perfect troops, the Roman legions which were supplemented with auxiliary groups from local population later. Borders with the German world on Rhine and Danube demanded strong and continuous protection, and ten-thousand garrisons carried out here for many years. Gradually there was a serf belt with military camps (a kastra and kastall) the Roman garrisons, with small krepostets and watchtowers. In the first two centuries this military border (limes romanus, the fig. SO) was established in prireynsky areas from where the belt of connecting strengthenings to Danube lasted, and proceeded across Danube to the Carpathian hollow. Military camps were very well-planned that had to facilitate life of the legionaries arriving from the southern countries in the inhospitable and severe North. In premises the central heating (bypocaustum) was brought, baths were constructed (balneum) and other improvements were entered. Under protection of fortress settlements of markitant and dealers so there was the whole military city with own amphitheater grew; nearby often the second city, civil in which there was also all necessary for providing a high standard of living of the population grew. At the Gallic cities then there were colonies of veterans, retired military personnel. All these essential changes exerted impact on life both in Gallia, and in provinces to the east from Gallia, in Retion, Norike and in Pannoniya to the most present Budapest area. Thus, the victory of Rome in Gallia did not bring with itself a social revolution. Most of the population still lived in villages, was stronger attached to the earth. The Romanization got there much more slowly. This rural population kept language, old life, old customs and customs and sometimes mutinies tried to stop process of colonization and a Romanization. Besides these wide circles with own production kept also old technical knowledge and production methods, adapting them for the changing requirements so Gallic workshops continued to work also during the Roman era and even became a basis of all provincial-Roman production. The developed Celtic production of ceramics was a presage of large ceramic production during the Roman period. “The Terra of a sigillat”, especially kleymenny noble ceramics with a thin reddish cover which is often decorated with relief figured and vegetable motives, originally i.e. in the first century B.C., was made in Italy, in particular in Arezzo (arezzinsky goods). Later, at Tiberiya, production was transferred to Gallia, at first on the South, then to the center and at last to prireynsky areas. Soon there were workshops in many places: in La-Grofesenc in the south, in I Climb in a middle part, in Reyntsaberna and in some other places, sometimes and on other coast of Rhine. However large potter’s workshops of arvern in La-Grofesenc and in I Climb (Pyui-de-Dom) worked even before arrival of Romans and supplied considerable part of Gallia with the jugs and bowls. Production of noble ceramics, therefore, moved from Italy to Gallic areas with old potter’s tradition, and from here products were carried not only in the province, but also to the areas located to the north to modern Germany, Poland and to the Czech Republic. Participation of local potters in this production is demonstrated also by brands of masters with Gallic names. It belongs also to production of bronze vessels as were engaged in it in Gallia and in prireynsky areas later, and to the glass industry which in Gallia and especially in the Rhine areas during the Roman era took deep root. We got acquainted with the first steps of the glass industry already during blossoming of oppidum in which the glory of this production branch in essence was born. For the rest, certainly, public life was under strong influence of Italic customs. And nowadays Roman representations substantially got into old Celtic beliefs, for old Celtic gods there were gods corresponding to them in the Roman pantheon, their names were identified and mixed up. Under the influence of the Roman environment and in the Celtic world also temple architecture of more accurate type appears. Since then, as direct Roman influence began to affect, since the boundary old and new Ayr, and then and during an era of the Roman Empire, polygonal or round temples, usually with external gallery are erected. Now such temples the set as in the territory of trever and mediomatrik on Mozel and Sar, and in the territory эдуев and мандубиев between sources of Seine and the Top Loire and on the West is known further; we find them also in Britain, mainly where tribes of belg lodged, is more rare in Retion and Pannoniya. They were erected away from settlements that speaks about old religious ideas of sacred places at tops of hills, at sources of the rivers or at intersections. The center of these sanctuaries was the small room (cella), often oval, with a diameter only 5-10 m; around this central room there was a terrace, from outer side opened or with a colonnade. These sanctuaries were places of a cult of the Celtic deities, in their device the Celtic and Roman elements alternate. Some researches, for example in Trier, give the chance to assume that in older time such constructions were erected from a tree, but in the 1st century stone constructions on limy solution as polygonal which often are considered as more ancient type, and round appear. The small temple in Bibrakta (Dea Bibracte) belongs most likely to the period when the population already moved to the new city of Avgustodun (Oten); it is confirmed also by the fact that 107 Gallic coins and only 10 Roman were found in the temple. Equally and in a sculpture, as well as in other branches, the Roman influence affects. Fuller use of a plastic form and more realistic approach forced out old Celtic stylization and a schematization as at the image of people, and animals. Except old local images of a boar, dog, horse, Gallic rooster appear the image and foreign exotic animals – a lion and other east motives. Statues of people or the head from a stone and bronze are processed more perfectly, realistichny, but old Celtic character affects and here, as in typically Celtic board which armed the Gallic soldier from Mondragon (tab.xix), and in the Celtic weapon and in symbols on a triumphal arch in Narbona or in brilliantly executed bronze head of the Celtic resident of modern Switzerland, which will bear traces of the Celtic twiddle in finishing of hair and beards. About numerous small votivny figurines of this time we mentioned already above. It is often difficult to distinguish that is work of the local Gallic artist and that – work of the one who grew roots in Gallia a little. The Gallic atmosphere influenced also the artists moving from other areas. Separate elements mutually intertwined. Influence of ancient Celtic art affects also during the subsequent eras, at the time of meroving, Carlovingians and even at the time of Romance and Gothic styles; it is shown also in plasticity where separate decorative motives, in the image of the human heads and in their combinations (Saint-Benoist-sur-Luar) are used. Certainly, many storms blew over France meanwhile, it was pressed by Germans, allamana, and then francs, it felt also pressure of Huns at Attila; the local environment, thus, perceived many new trends. However no infiltration of the Roman views and the Roman way of life, the subsequent waves of various currents could muffle old Celtic traditions completely. They are living in France still in language and in toponymics. In many cases of the name of tribes passed into names of the cities, there were names of mountains and rivers, many names in the agricultural environment remained hitherto; often they have nothing late Latin which took roots only in the church environment when the church and the temple won a victory. Equally and many lines of a feudal system vividly remind us in some respects that situation which was characteristic of the Celtic society in due time; substantially it was a presage of the subsequent development during which final prerequisites for a victory of a new social order were created.

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