Southern french celtic-ligurian region

In the territory on which Celts got approximately only at the end of 4 centuries and where they adjoined to ligura, they appeared also in the closest contact with the sphere of the Greek art. Therefore here it is impossible to speak about purely Celtic art. According to legends, Celts studied technology of construction of strengthenings at Greeks. Such statement concerns not Celts in general, namely this South French Celtic-Ligurian region, Gallia of Greek (Gallia Graeca) in Provence. In this territory soon there were oppiduma with fortifications, the correct streets and temple constructions that clearly speaks about loan and copying of the Greek and east samples with their terraces, pro-pileas (monumental entrance gate with columns) and other elements unusual to internal areas. In comparison with the Central European oppiduma they are more similar to the cities. In the south of France, thus, Celts learned a lot of things, learned much. Keltsko-liguriyskiyoppidum Entremon (деп. Bush-du-Ron), the center and at the same time a sanctuary саллиев, is constructed in massilsky area in the 3rd century and later was destroyed by Romans in 124. Its wide walls from stone kvadr and with the rounded-off towers remained on some places up to the height of 4 m. Quadrangular houses of a stone dry masonry stand closely each other so walls at them the general, and are leveled to wide correct streets. Were protected from blows of wheels of vehicles of the house by special curbstones and plates. In holes cellars there were many local and imported vessels for storage of stocks; it is not forgotten also about elementary requirements of the sewerage. Here and there even the remains of an unpretentious mosaic were found. In this settlement of city type where F. Benois is engaged several years in excavation, the sanctuary was in the highest place. To it the road about 100 m long bordered with sculptures of heroes conducted. In ruins of a sanctuary quadrangular calcareous columns with the human heads, vytesanny on them (fig. 35, 12 of the heads on one column) – the remains of the so-called “hall of the heads” remained. In the cult hall in niches of stone columns rough nails attached the real human heads (a cult of the chopped-off heads). Many fragments of sculptures from limestone, including the child’s head, the head of the prince with the hair combed by a wreath in the form of a diadem, the male head with curly hair, the female head, a stone with four heads (2 men’s and 2 women’s), vytesanny on it, the head of the soldier and almost whole sculptures of soldiers are found in the part opened so far. It is really whole gliptoteka, a collection of the sculptures and torsos though which are strongly injured as Romans destroyed the city in 124 g and destroyed a sanctuary as the possible center of future resistance. Similar situation was also in other places of Provence. In an oppiduma Rokepertus (Bush-du-Ron) a portico (a facade with columns) sanctuaries made three stone columns which are once painted with deepenings in them for human skulls. Over a cross log stone, more half a meter the figure of the bird who was going to fly up, apparently, as a symbol of a way on the next world was placed in height above. We find here and “Hermes” with two heads between which the beak of a predator sticks out. All pro-pileas were divided into 2 terraces. Sculptures in a sitting position (Buddha’s pose”) represent god or the prince or the heroized dead, one with cervical hryvnia and a bracelet, another in clothes with a belt; they also bear traces of an initial coloring. All this demonstrates that in the south of France there were local sculptural workshops; in them stone statues, first of all religious and cult character were created. Influence of the Greek environment is obvious here. Local artists not always correctly understood samples and the idea of separate plans and harmony of proportions in the general concept. Some lines of sculptures of these heroes in the South French sanctuaries are especially characteristic: outstanding cheekbones, a straight nose with a wide nose bridge, eyebrows a semicircle, the hair which are low hanging over a convex forehead; we find some of these lines also in purely Celtic sculpture. Well-known Tarask (fig. 37) from Nove (Bush-du-Ron), the sculpture of a monster which body reminds the lion leaning paws on two human heads with the long beards taken also for “tetes coupees” – the chopped-off heads is made of local limestone during the dorimsky period. Perhaps, it is a symbol of death, eternal silence, motive which was especially widespread during later Latin period; however it is difficult for us to define its origin and true value now. The cult of skulls, apparently, was very widespread on all territory. Human skulls in which even nails by which they were once beaten remained were also found in the kelto-Iberian oppidum Pyuig Kastelar. The Celtic-Ligurian region, thanks to the geographical location, since the most ancient times experienced various influences. The way from Italy went through Nice (Nicaea) and Ol Biya at Toulon on the West to Ampurias in Catalonia. In the Massiliya based approximately in 600 g there was Artemis’s sanctuary with steles of the Ionic style (with the sitting goddess in niches) the same character, as in the Hilt in Asia Minor; the remains of city walls also carry a print of influence of Asia Minor. The ellinichesky stele (3-2 centuries) belongs to later period. However directly in the neighbourhood with Massiliya many other and very ancient monuments remained. Long, still unfinished excavation of T. Rolland in Seong-Blaise (деп. Bush-du-Ron) open the remains of well remained Greek city of Mastramel based earlier Massiliya no later than the 7th century. During the Celtic expansion this city with well protected acropolis was surrounded with powerful walls. In the Celtic-Greek sculpture of a lion from Le-Bo (Bush-du-Ron) about 3 centuries slip lines of east samples, but it is made of local limestone. Some settlements in Provence and Languedoc worried long centuries, and the local environment gradually was exposed to east and Greek, and then Iberian, Celtic and Roman influences. In the last phase the concentrated economic pressure and cultural influence in connection with a consecutive Romanization got into other areas of France from these southern areas. Anzeryun (Erol), оппидум on the South French coast between Bezier and Narbon in Languedoc, arose on a rocky eminence between mouths of small rivers Orb and Aude. Cyclopean walls turned it in the 5th century into the first-class fortress. Then here the Iberian influences, and later, got into the Celtic period, this place became the important oppidum reaching 750 m in length and 300 m width in which about 8000 inhabitants could be located. Its settling from the Neolithic and a bronze age up to the keltoiberiysky period is confirmed by the corresponding deposits of an occupation layer. We meet with anti-which, the Greek, Italic, Etruscan and early Roman influences here; At the end of 3 centuries first of all Celts were known to Hannibal here. In Glanum (in Greek Glanon) in the lower current of Rhone in the neighborhood of Arles (Bush-du-Ron) the city remains, at least, with four phases of settling also remained. The most ancient monuments of the Celtic times with a local sanctuary are often reminded in sculptural works by Entremon and Rokepertus. Since the Hellenistic time the remains of walls 2 centuries, and also a peristyle (the columned hall), surrounding ampluviya (the pool for rain water), and a mosaic, apparently, the oldest in the territory of present France remained there. But also the next centuries left the mark here: it is a lot of houses of the period of a Romanization of the middle of the last century and proof of brisk construction activity of the Gallic-Roman period up to the last third 3 centuries. The city was destroyed by Germans about 270 AD. In Glanum the city gate of the middle of the last century (the period about 40 g), oldest in Gallia, with the reliefs on side walls representing captured Gauls remained.
The Romanization of Gallia in this South French area quickly found strong strong points. It is enough to give Arles with the theater constructed at the time of Augustus, with the scene reaching 104 m in length and with a set of sculptural jewelry (marble figures of dancers), Oranzh (Waugh-klyuz) where also at the time of Augustus there was a theater with a water supply system, the Roman bridges in Apt (Apt Yuli) or Vazion Waugh-kontsiorum (Vezon-la-Romain, Voklyuz), once important Celtic city, and in the period of a Romanization the richest city on the left coast of Rhone, or, at last, temple constructions at a sacred source in Nym. Directly in the neighbourhood with Entremon there was a city Akwa Sekstiyeva. Under all these influences there was then also a development in Gallia.

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