Statements about the Chechens

“Like the Circassians, Chechens are proud vanity of their independence and believed in the future of their nation wide. The Chechens consider themselves the people, elected by God, but what kind of goals they are intended or elected – can not explain. Because of this self-confidence, they believe neither in their outlook on life, nor in their opinions and convictions, can not be mistaken. “

The peoples of Russia. Scenic album. 1877.

“If there were no reasons for discord among them, Chechens would become very dangerous neighbors, and there is no good reason to apply to them what he said Thucydides the ancient Scythians:” There is neither in Europe nor in Asia, the people who could to resist them if last joined forces “(Johann Blaramberg,” Caucasian manuscript “)

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“By the head of the department left flank of the Caucasian line related space bounded by the main ridge of the mountains, rivers Andean Koisu, Sulak, the Caspian Sea and the rivers Terek, Assa and Daut – Martan. The main population of this space is a Chechen tribe, the strongest, most violent and warlike of all the Caucasian peoples “

“The movement of the mountaineers of the North – Eastern Caucasus in 20-50 years. 19th century. ” Makhachkala 1959 Dagestan branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, p. 280, document number 154. Memorandum Major – General Pullen on the situation on the left flank of the Caucasian line from 1834 to 1840. and the measures needed to consolidate the power of the imperial government of the mountaineers. 1840

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Speaking about the settlement of these lands Chechens, Professor PI Kovalevsky wrote that they were “little by little began to descend from the mountains and gradually occupy the villages under their Kumyk area. This is how a number of villages from Kachkalyko ridge and almost to the Kizlyar Terek for forming Kachkalyk Chechnya. ” The effect of the AUGE them in and around the Terek – Sulak interfluve was so great that, as he wrote General V. Potto, “None of the princes of Kumyk … did not dare to travel without being a Chechen guide.

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Plane, or, more correctly, sloping northern slopes of the Caucasian ridge, covered with forests and fruitful valleys and inhabited the eastern part of the Chechen tribe, the most warlike of the tribes of the mountain, it was always the heart, the barn and the most powerful hiring a hostile coalition mountains. Shamil, knowing full well that the price of the foothills and choosing his residence originally Dargo, Vedeno and then apparently tried to stay closer Chechnya than all of his other possessions. The significance of these foothills were understood and in-Chief Prince Baryatinsky, focus all our blows on Chechen land, the fall of which in April 1859 could not resist and six months populous Dagestan, although rested from our offensive operations, discontinued from Dagestan more since 1849, the year .

(E. Selderetsky. Conversations about Caucasus. Ch 1, Berlin, 1870)

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Chechens – great riders – can travel for just one night one hundred and twenty, a hundred and thirty or even a hundred and fifty miles. Their horses, without reducing the step – always galloping – such storm the slopes, where, apparently, does not pass and the pedestrian. Highlander, riding on horseback, never looking at the road ahead: if the path is cleft, which can not be solved immediately overcome his horse, horse head wraps Chechen cloak and, entrusting themselves to God, it makes the pony jumping over a precipice to a depth of twenty feet.

(Alexandre Dumas. Caucasus. (Paris, 1859)

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Unenviable situation in the Caucasus foothills of professor S.N.Rukavishnikov outlined in his paper read October 11, 1912 at a meeting of the “Society of Zealots of history”:

“Although conquered the Caucasus and Russia, but it is not quite Zamir. Inhabit his Muslim nation in the wilderness of their villages breathe implacable hatred of Russia and expect only the case to come to the defense of Islam. The whole history of the Caucasus shows that the hotbed of unrest in the Caucasus is Daghestan, and in particular Chechnya, which, thanks to its geographical position, so far represents a completely isolated, unapproachable, wild country. “According to Rukavishnikova around were to blame authorities (then – Petersburg) and the local Caucasian administration, which does not even try to involve Chechnya to the benefits of modern culture, to connect it with the outside world at least what some roads. “Under the influence of all these circumstances, and due to the natural hot and ardent nature Chechens of the last developed a rebellious, freedom-loving and fanatical tribe, easily treatable promotion of hatred toward Muslims” giaours “- he brought the professor.

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“I saw a lot of people, but there are unruly and intractable as the Chechens, on the ground, and there is no way for the conquest of the Caucasus lies through the conquest of the Chechens, or rather, through their complete destruction.”

“The Emperor! .. Mountain people of the example of his independence in most subjects of your Imperial Majesty generate a rebellious spirit and love of independence.”

(Report of A. Yermolov to Alexander I February 12, 1819)

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“The Chechens, no doubt, the bravest people in the eastern mountains. Surfing in their land always cost us huge bloody victims. But this tribe never penetrates Muridism completely. Of all the mountaineers, only they made  of Shamil, who ruled despotically in Dagestan, to make it a thousand concessions in the form of government, the people’s duties and ceremonial rigor of faith “

(NF Dubrovin, “The history of the war and the Russian domination in the Caucasus”).

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“It is also impossible to subdue the Chechens as smooth Caucasus. Who but us will be able to boast that he had seen the eternal war? “

(General Mikhail Orlov, 1826).

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“According to official data, the population of Chechnya in 1847 and 1850 decreased by more than two times, and since 1860 at the time of the revolution (ie, 1917) – almost four times”, – says the Encyclopedic Dictionary “Granat” (Vol 58. Vol. 7, Moscow, OGIZ, 1940, p. 183).

The fact that the pre-war number of Chechens was a half million people, and says A. Rogov (magazine “Revolution and mountaineer”, number 6-7, p. 94). By the end of the war in 1861 there were only 140 thousand people, and by 1867 -. 116 thousand. (Volkova NG “The ethnic composition of the population of the North Caucasus in the XIX century” Moscow, 1973, p.120 -. 121.)

The scale of the military operations, and provides insight into the number of the king’s troops concentrated in the Caucasus: from 250,000 in the mid-40s to 300 000 by the end of the 50s (MN Pokrovsky “Diplomacy and War of tsarist Russia in the XIX century M. ., 1923, 217 -. 218). These forces, as noted in his report to Alexander II Field Marshal Baryatinsky, were “unquestionably the better half of Russian forces” (Report of Field Marshal AI Bariatinskii for 1857 -. 1859 years Acts collected by the Caucasian archaeological expedition, ie XII, Tiflis. 1904). “In addition, Chechnya has served for several decades, the main theater of a fierce war with the Caucasian highlanders” (Coll. Information about the Caucasian Highlanders. Vol. II of, Tbilisi, 1869, p. 56), in which “began the methodical expulsion of Chechens from plane by destroying villages, cutting forests, castles, and settling device “liberated” lands “Cossack villages” (BC, t.61, p. 531, Moscow, 1934).

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Governmental Commission of Russia consider bringing them to serve in the Russian army in 1875, he reported: “The Chechens, the most aggressive and dangerous mountaineers of the North Caucasus, represent a ready warriors, where military service is hardly anything new can be learned in terms of dashing drive and the ability to wield weapons. Chechens literally from childhood accustomed to deal with weapons … Shooting at night vskidku: the sound, to the light shows a clear advantage over the Highlanders in the Cossacks and especially trained soldiers “

Theses of reports and messages the All-Union Scientific konfirentsii 20-22 June 1989. Makhachkala, 1989. P.23

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“Chechens, both men and women are extremely beautiful appearance. They are tall, very slender, their faces, especially eyes, expressive; Chechens movements are agile, dexterous; by nature they are very impressionable, cheerful and witty, for what they called “the French of the Caucasus”, but at the same time suspicious, quick-tempered, faithless, treacherous, vindictive. When they seek to his purpose for them by any means. However, the Chechens are invincible, extremely hardy, brave in the attack, protection and prosecution. They are – predators, among which a little proud of the Knights of the Caucasus; and they themselves do not hide it, choosing among the animal kingdom as ideal – wolf “

(Conquest of the Caucasus. Sketches of the past and modern St. Petersburg Caucasus. 1904. Caspari.)

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“Cute Chechens affected in their epics and songs. Poor on the number of words, but extremely graphic language of this tribe as though created, according to knowledgeable scholars of the Andean mountain range, to the legends and fairy tales – naive and instructive at the same time. Insulted bouncers, punished the envious and predators, the triumph of generous, although sometimes the weak, respect for women, which is a helper to her husband and a friend – that’s folk art roots in Chechnya. Attach to this wit mountaineer, his ability to joke and understand the joke, have fun, which is not to master even difficult current situation of the tribe, and you are, of course, with all due respect to the uniformed moralists agree with me that the Chechens – people as a nation, nothing no worse, and perhaps, better than any other, stands out from its environment such virtuous and merciless judges. The ability of this tribe – without a doubt. Of the Caucasian intellectuals have many Chechens in schools and gymnasiums. Where they learn – they do not praise enough. Those who arrogantly humiliated unknown mountaineer, must at the same time agree that talking to ordinary Chechens, you feel that you’re dealing with a person sensitive to such phenomena of social life, which are almost inaccessible to our middle peasant provinces. “

Nemirovich-Danchenko V. Chechnya along.

The Chechens have always been a formidable opponent. They fought with us for life and death.

V.A.Potto. Historical Sketch of the Caucasian wars … (Tiflis, 1899)

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” The Chechens are very poor, but for charity never go, do not like to ask, and this is their moral superiority over the Highlanders. Chechens in relation to their never ordered, and say, ” I would need this, I would like to eat, do, go and find out, if God willing. ” Dirty word in the local language is almost non-existent. ”

Belyaev, a Russian soldier diary, the former ten months in captivity Chechens.

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“The Chechens did not burn houses, not deliberately trampling cornfields, vineyards did not break.” Why destroy God’s gift and man’s work “- they said … And it’s usually the State Committee” robber “is a virtue, which could be proud of the most educated nations, if they had her. “

AA Bestuzhev-Marly in “Letter to Dr. Ehrmann.”

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“Someone has rightly said that the type of a Chechen in his moral character has something resembling a wolf. The Lion and the Eagle show the strength, those go for the weak and the Wolf is on a stronger than himself, replacing the latter case, all – boundless audacity, courage and agility. And once he gets into trouble hopeless, dies in silence, without expressing no fear, no pain, no groan “

(V. Potto, XIX century).

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“… Like a whip that fell from the hands of surprised in the way sandstorm rider Chechens will disappear … However, the same wind, blowed in the opposite direction, will carry sand and whip again appears on the white light. And the Chechens will leave on time in oblivion , rise again for good and justice, and will live to the Day of Judgment. “

18 century.

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“Chechens as our enemies, we tried by all means to destroy and even their dignity to pay in disadvantages. We have them considered by the people to the extreme fickle, gullible, cunning and treacherous, because they did not want to fulfill our requirements, preposterous to their concepts, customs, customs and way of life. We are so denigrated simply because they did not want to dance to our tune, which sounds were too tough for them, and the deafening … “

General M.Y.Olshevsky

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“You kept one hundred thousandth army of Denikin, your villages razed to the ground, but the enemy did not pass. The Soviet government never forget it.

Josef Stalin.

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“After the crushing of France in 1812-1814 gg. And defeating the mighty Ottoman Empire in 1829, Russia accepted to Caucasians. Among them, the Chechens have the most fierce resistance. They were ready to die, but not to give up freedom. This is a sacred sense of the basis of ethnic Chechen . the nature and to this day we now know that their ancestors were involved in the formation of human civilization in the primary of its outbreak in the Middle East Hurrians, Mittani and Urartu -. But who is listed in the Chechen culture sources Ancient peoples of the Eurasian steppes, apparently also included. their ancestors, because traces of kinship of these languages. for example, with the Etruscans, as well as with the Slavs. Traditional outlook Chechens finds primordial monotheism, the idea of one God. integrated self-clans system a century ago to develop a unified body of the Council of the country. He served as a single military command, formed public relations, carrying public functions. The only thing he lacked for the state rank, it’s penitentiary system, including prisons. Thus, the Chechen people had lived for centuries with their state. By the age of occurrence in the Caucasus, Russian Chechens have completed their anti-feudal movement. But they left the functions of the state as a way of human coexistence and self-defense. That this nation was able in the past to implement a unique global experiment to achieve a democratic society. “

Charles William Rekherton

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“The Chechen nation is an ethnic root part of the Caucasian race, one of the oldest sources of human civilization, a fundamental principle of spirituality, has gone through Hurrian, Mittani, Urartian culture and suffered its history and the right to a decent life, has become a model of resilience and democracy. Ancient Armenians first tied ethnonym” Nokhchi “modern self Chechens with the name of the prophet Noah, as noted above, the literal meaning of which is Noah – the people.”

Yan Chesnov

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“There in the East preserved traces of ancient Germanization of the North Caucasus: Chechens – Aryan tribe”

Adolf Hitler

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In his article Bodenshtedt Friedrich (Frankfurt, 1855) wrote, “from century to Century powerful Russian state exposes the physical destruction Chechen people, its historical and cultural heritage, – to Russia For many centuries it was at war against the Chechens, but never was able to completely defeat them “

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Tito, who during the deportation of Chechens to Central Asia in 1944, extremely indignant monstrous action, angrily spoke out against Kremlin’s inhabitants: “Hey, you perverted savages, where the Chechen people, what you did to him ?! “, and signed – Boris Joseph Tito

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” The Chechens ethnically and linguistically very different from other mountain peoples of the Caucasus. They – moved to the Caucasus scion of the great Hyperborean – Paleoasiatic tribe, which extends from the tour – through northern Mesopotamia – to Canaan. “(Joseph Karst,” Home Mediterranean prehistoric Mediterranean peoples, their origin, resettlement, and close relatives Ethnolinguistic study” Heidelberg, 1937).

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Chechens (Nokhchi, Vainakh) – one of the largest among the many peoples of indigenous mountain tribes of the North Caucasus … The most active and strong opponents of the russian government in the conquest of the North Caucasus, Chechens and fairly considered in this fight mountaineers Chechens played an outstanding role, supplying the main combat forces and food for “gazavat” (holy war). This resistance was for the bourgeois writers formal grounds for the dissemination of false characteristics Chechens as “savages” and innate robbers. Serious research has not been done the Chechens and to date they remain among the least studied Caucasian japhetites.

TSB, t. 61, 1934

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The middle group of Caucasians formed only one major tribe of Chechens who call themselves nahchoy and by Georgians are known under the designation Kusts or Kists. Habitat of this nation lies east of Vladikavkaz and Upper Terek. The Chechens are not quite monotonous tribe, as evidenced by their language, and only all the followers of Islam. They differ from the Circassians complete absence of the upper class. A nice addition is superior Lezgin Chechen and Ossetian. When Russian conquest of the Caucasus, the Chechens, led by Shamil temporarily enjoyed particularly important.

Schurz. Quick ethnology. Trans. with it. S.Pb. 1895.

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Kists belonging to the Chechen tribe, speak and dress like the Chechens. Under the terms of the area they are fighting mostly on foot, and a sword found in their arsenal is extremely rare; but their long lezghin daggers, they have a perfect command, inflict terrible blows, and whatever touches the blade of their falling apart half.

VA Potto. In Jour .. “Soldier’s Library», №145, St. Petersburg, 1889

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Russian know Chechens under very different names. The name “Chechen” is derived from the large settlement Chechan lying on the lower reaches of the Argun River and the famous Russian since the campaign of Peter the Great. In addition, Erkert says: “Russian distinguish Galgays and Ingush, Chechens whom represent one common name galgays. Then there is the following tribes: nazranovtsy, galashevtsy, Karabulaks (formerly lived in Datyh Gorge and migrated mostly to Turkey …).

According to Schwartz, Ingush call themselves lamur (llamas – mountain), Karabulaks same – Arsht. Uslar results still “instantaneous”, so called themselves Kists. Galgays called Georgians “gligvi” pl “Gligveni”. It remains to mention one among the people of Chechen origin, is part … is now part of the Tushino people – it batsy (batsat pl Wizbang).

Dyrr AM Proc .: Coll. Mater. to describe places and tribes of the Caucasus V. 40, Tbilisi. 1909

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“The Chechens are my kind pressed in. Most of the families living in the forests, in the winter time to instill a disease like yellow fever and has produced devastation from lack of feed for cattle weaning fields falls in large quantities.

Our victory will bring us to the last refuges of the villains. I did not depart from the system I have undertaken to embarrass villains in all ways. Importantly there hungry, and because I achieve I have a path to the valleys, where they can still cultivate the land and to save their herds “

(Quoted by the magazine “Revolution and mountaineer, number 6-7, Rostov-on-Don, 1932, with 92-95..).

General Yermolov in 1820

” A Russian General Yermolov, in order to win (in 1818-1819gg) hated his people, he has been active in anti-Chechen propaganda among the soldiers. However, Yermolov’s soldiers had a different opinion – and ran into a democratic mass Chechnya. The question of withdrawal of the escapees was one of the more acute and spoil relations between the Russian authorities and Chechen ‘

(Pokrovsky. ” Diplomacy and War Tsarist Russia in the XIX century. Moscow, 1924., 201)

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” Meanwhile, Major-General Grekov, taking advantage of the lull, produced during the winter (1825) several expeditions in Chechnya punish villages that took to his runaway Kabardians. You could not wish for a more destructive weather Chechens. From the day of his come out from Grozny and before returning, cold lasted quite cruel. Also deep in snow Chechnya frosts keep 8 to 12 degrees, finally, sleet, which lasted 4 days, covered with ice trees and all the plants, deprived of a last resort, food animals, while, as hay is left or in the villages or in the desert. The two extremes of these things are quite strong to enslave any other people, but hardly shaken several Chechens. Perseverance their incredible. That is to say, not given Kabardians. ”

(Dubrovin NF ” The history of war and domination, ” t. VI, Vol 1, St. Petersburg, 1888, 527)

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Delpotstso about Chechen campaign: ‘Extremely sorry Kabardians not have to consume in the present case with the Chechens, for all my goal was that, to embroil the two nations together, to settle between them enmity and thereby eventually weaken them.’ ‘

” Chechen hospitable, kind, and does not shun the Gentiles’

(Military leaf. Major power. ” The war in Chechnya Big ”. 1885., Page 9)

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” The Chechens are exquisitely polite hosts and guests. Chechens differ most cordial hospitality. Each tries to surround the guest material allowances, what he does not have any annual holidays, nor solemn moment for his family ‘

(Dubrovin NF ” History of the War and the Russian domination in the Caucasus ”. 1871. Volume 1 Book 1 p 415)

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” Nice Beibulat, Caucasian storm came in Arzrum two elders Circassian villages in revolt during the last war .. His arrival in Arzrum I was very pleased: he was my guarantee a safe crossing through mountains to Kabarda ”

(Pushkin, Op. 5 t Moscow, 1960., Page 457)

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” The way of life between the wealthy and the poor Chechens almost no difference, the advantage of one over the other is expressed in part in the apparel, more than just the weapons and horses. Chechens in its closed circle form with a single class – the people of free and no feudal privileges we do not find among them ”

(A.P. Berger. ” Chechnya and the Chechens. ” Tbilisi. 1859. p 98-99)

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Russian, expelled the Chechens from Grozny, were deposited there by mountaineers and fired at the nearby villages of guns. Chechens managed Soon, disarming Vedeno Russian garrison, to rob them of 19 guns. Smuggle these weapons to the besieged Grozny, Chechens used them solely to make the Russian not to destroy their villages. SM Kirov wrote: ” If the Chechens take in head to end the Terrible, they can do it for a few minutes. They should only release a few rounds on oil and gasoline tanks and Grozny remain only ashes’

( ” Don News’, April 24th 1918)

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