The protocol of interrogation of D. S. Azbel of March 17, 1935.


March 17, 1935.

AZBEL D. With, 1911 rozhd., urozh. Chernihiv, till 8 years it was brought up in the grandfather’s family — the dealer, from 1925 to 1927 was chl. All-Union Leninist Young Communist League, is excluded for the organization of a strike at school, in 1929 would be detained. OGPU. Aunt SHLAFSTEIN I.E. in exile in the Narymsky region. Before arrest worked as the graduate student at printing institute.

Question: When and for what you were excluded from members of All-Union Leninist Young Communist League?
Answer: I was expelled from All-Union Leninist Young Communist League in 1927 for the organization at school of a strike.
Question: Who was still excluded together with you for the organization of a strike?
Answer: Together with me LEVENSON Evgeny Mikhaylovich, now the student of Academy of motorization and mechanization of RKKA was excluded.
Question: What views you at that time shared?
Answer: I shared Trotskyist views.
Question: And now what views you share?
Answer: I up to arrest was a Trotskyist.
Question: And LEVENSON?
* Answer: LEVENSON in 1927 together with me acted openly with protection of Trotskyist views. I know that he hides the last communication with a trotskizm from a Komsomol organizatsii* now.
Question: LEVENSON hides the last communication with a trotskizm as is a Trotskyist still?
Answer: I do not know it.
Question: What can you explain obviously double-dealing behavior of LEVENSONA with?
Answer: For me it is clear that he is a double dealer, but whether it is connected with Trotskyists, I do not know.
Question: It is a lie. The consequence knows that LEVENSON shared Trotskyist views and after 1927. You were connected with it personal friendship until recently and could not but know his Trotskyist views.
Answer: I repeat that I do not know it.
Question: Whether you know NEKHAMKINA Lev Yakovlevich?
Answer: Yes, I know well and met it until recently.
Question: What political views of NEHAMKINA?
* Answer: He is a Trotskyist, and on this basis I was connected with it up to aresta*.
Question: What almost counterrevolutionary Trotskyist work you conducted?
Answer: I considered that the mode of repressions in party and the country made almost impossible carrying out a little serious mass work.
* As a result of this mode any dissatisfied elements in the country on which it would be possible to lean are intimidated. It is possible to awaken these dissatisfied elements to active fight against the management of All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) only by terror application. I saw all evil in STALIN and therefore considered that murder it as most influential decisive figure in party and the country, it will be possible to cause confusion in the environment of present party leadership and to stir all elements dissatisfied with the existing mode to action. In my opinion, at this moment will have to head this fight taken shape for the entire period of illegal work as the most resistant and the shots betrayed to a trotskizm — the small part of Trotskyists which is in prisons and the reference, the hidden Trotskyists who remained in party and formally departed from a trotskizm but actually kept the vzglyady*.
Question: Under whose influence you came to a conclusion about need of murder of t. STALIN?
Answer: Hatred to STALIN was a consequence of my Trotskyist views and beliefs that STALIN’S elimination will change the existing mode in the country. My terrorist plans were formed and got stronger under the influence of a number of circumstances. I had to observe extreme animosity against STALIN not only among Trotskyists, but also right with which I at one time communicated. ** So, in 1930 after the 16th party congress, I was on Alexander SLEPKOV’S apartment where Andrey SVERDLOV, Dmitry OSINSKY, Victor BELOV, Dmitry MARETSKY gathered and where BUKHARIN came. He told being present that he just was on bureau of a cell of NTU of VSNKh where it was forced to define the position to decisions 16 of a party congress. BUKHARIN bragged of the fact that he “cheated fools”, on the substance of nothing without having told them about the valid relation to solutions of congress **.
** Then BUKHARIN in spitefully humiliating tone spoke about STALIN. When we (I am AZBEL, Andrey SVERDLOV, Dmitry OSINSKY and Victor BELOV) left the apartment of SLEPKOVA and went down the street Granovsky, Andrey Sverdlov under direct impression of talk of BUKHARIN on STALIN, declared the following: “Coba should be broken”. This thought of Andrey SVERDLOV met our general sympathy **.
In 1933 I got acquainted with the wife of the famous Trotskyist of SOSNOVSKOGO — Olga Danilovna. We with it became very intimate as she was a Trotskyist.
Further my terrorist intentions concerning STALIN amplified under the influence of O. D. SOSNOVSKAYA.
Question: You discussed concrete opportunities of murder of comrade STALIN with SOSNOVSKOY?
** Answer: Yes, I with SOSNOVSKOY spoke two times in 1933 about it in the fall. Both conversations were on its apartment.
After O. D. SOSNOVSKAYA repeatedly in talk with me gave extremely hostile assessment to situation in party and the country, accompanying it with spiteful attacks to STALIN’S address, I under the influence of this talk directly raised before it a question that STALIN should be killed.
She was kind to my offer and declared that well to make it not hands of Trotskyists as politically it will be unprofitable to Trotskyists **.
Question: What preparatory work you conducted for implementation of your terrorist plans.
Answer: I did not conduct practical work on carrying out an act of terrorism, business was limited to one intentions.
Question: With whom you still discussed a question of murder of comrade STALIN?
Answer: In the winter of 1933 I came to my old companion NEKHAMKIN L.Ya., whom I knew as spitefully adjusted Trotskyist. Together with NEHAMKINYM we left its apartment and went to Tverskoy Boulevard. In NEKHAMKIN Boulevard conversation on a role of the personality in the history led **, then passed to a Trotskyist counterrevolutionary assessment of the current situation in the country and a role in it STALIN, having declared that STALIN’S murder will sharply change the current situation. I supported this thought of NEHAMKINA and developed before it my terrorist installations stated at the beginning of the present indications. I emphasized that STALIN’S murder will clear away the road for Trotsky **.
Question: You discussed with NEHAMKINYM a question of murder of comrade STALIN not only in 1933, but also later?
** Answer: Yes, I confirm that except this case I with NEHAMKINYM about STALIN’S murder had two more conversations. The last conversation was in February, 1935, again in Tverskoy Boulevard when NEHAMKIN raised a question of STALIN’S murder ** again.
Question: Except a case in 1930 about which you showed whether you had with BELOV Victor still talk on murder of t. STALIN?
** Answer: Yes, there was one more conversation in 1933, at the beginning of a year, at it on the apartment. There were we together, conversation began with my question as there lives Andrey SVERDLOV, then passed to memoirs, remembered the statement of SVERDLOVA for need of murder of STALIN and together with BELOVO stated need of its carrying out **.
Question: To whom you talked on the same subject?
Answer: More with anybody I did not speak about need of murder of STALIN.
Question: It is incorrect. Once again we suggest to call persons with whom you discussed a question of murder of t. STALIN.
Answer: I repeat that more I with anybody did not speak about it.
Question: Whether you know Boris ROSENFELD?
Answer: Personally with it it is unfamiliar, but from NEHAMKINA I know that he is his friend.
Question: Whether it is known to you and from whom that Boris ROSENFELD’S father is L.B. KAMENEV’S brother?
Answer: For the first time I hear about it.
Question: What to you was told by NEHAMKIN about Boris ROSENFELD’S moods?
Answer: Told nothing to me about this NEHAMKIN.
Question: NEHAMKIN participated with B. Rosenfeld in preparation of murder of t. STALIN. NEHAMKIN repeatedly as you showed, discussed a question of need of murder of comrade STALIN with you. What to you about it was told by NEHAMKIN?
Answer: Told nothing to me about this NEHAMKIN.
Question: Tell that you spoke to O. D. SOSNOVSKAYA about NEHAMKINE in connection with his terrorist moods?
Answer: Whether I in general told something to SOSNOVSKOY about NEHAMKINE, I do not remember.
Question: You evade the truthful question to the question posed.
Answer: I told nothing SOSNOVSKOY about terrorist moods of NEHAMKINA.
Question: What you know of O. D. SOSNOVSKAYA’S communications?
* Answer: O. D. SOSNOVSKAYA told me that she meets ADOBE. From O. D. SOSNOVSKAYA’S stories about her meetings with ADOBE it was clear for me that RAWS remained on the positions hostile to party. O. D. SOSNOVSKAYA spoke to me that RAWS it is not satisfied with the situation and that it has in general “heavy moods”. RAWS its council asked Olga Danilovna to transfer SOSNOVSKOMU to submit the declaration of abandonment of the vzglyadov*.
At the moods of SYRTsOVA specified by me it is the offer was obviously double-dealing.
Question: How O. D. SOSNOVSKAYA regarded the statement of her husband from a political insulator about its refusal of Trotskyist views?
* Answer: She did not give an assessment of the statement of SOSNOVSKOGO, but said that it has some remarks according to this statement. I from talk with O. D. SOSNOVSKAYA know that she, remaining on Trotskyist positions, went to appointment to SOSNOVSKOMU to persuade him to submit the declaration of abandonment of Trotskyist vzglyadov*.
Question: Whether O. D. SOSNOVSKAYA transferred to the husband about your moods?
Answer: Apparently, told though precisely I do not know it,
Question: And about your terrorist intentions?
Answer: I do not know.
Question: Whether you met SOSNOVSKIM after its return to Moscow and what talk you conducted with it?
Answer: I met SOSNOVSKIM. On political subjects I did not carry on talk with SOSNOVSKIM.
Question: You evaded the direct question to all questions of the practical preparation of murder of comrade STALIN which was carried out by you and your accomplices raised to you. We insist on the truthful answer.
** Answer: I recognize that I conducted promotion of the terror directed against STALIN. Besides, I did not conduct any other practical work **.
It is written down from my words truly and by me it is read.

David Semenovich AZBEL


APRF. T. 3. Op. 58. 233. L. 80-87. Original. Typewriting.

* — * Otcherknuto on fields one line.
** — ** Otcherknuto on fields two lines.

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